How to Define Protein Synthesis?

How to Define Protein Synthesis?

Every time people hear this term, they are likely to start thinking of body stimulators or builders. It is a common mistake made by those who do not have the foggiest idea of how synthesis occurs because the process is not just foods we eat. Protein synthesis involves a complicated process inside

Protein synthesis involves a complex process inside human body. Without tiny molecules our organism would never handle vital process taking place in our cells.

As time goes by, they can wear out. Just like parts of a an old car. This is where cells start producing amino acids to provide new proteins by means of synthesis. It consists of two main stages: transcription and translation. In this article, we will review both stages getting into details for clear understanding of the process.

Transcription Stage

DNA replicates a flawless blueprint for human cells. It provides a detailed instruction of producing specific protein that appears to be a better solution rather than moving the DNA code around each cell. They actually receive an ultimate copy of your birth certificate. Also known as mRNA, that copy comes in form of another molecule that delivers correct information for the cell to enable protein synthesis. Once the copy approaches a necessary compartment in a cell, the new stage is launched.

Translation Stage in Mechanism

Biology synthesis calls for special compartments located in our cells. This is where the copy is reviewed and first protein blocks are built. Those blocks are also known as amino acids. Cells put them together and this is how the proteins receive their functional shapes that will be responsible for structural and functional issues. We should note that proteins are necessary not only for humans and all types of cells require those blocks. Let’s check out the process in animals, plants, etc. We will also review some major synthesis steps.

Gene Protein in Animals

Human organism operates in a similar way with animals, which means people have the same cells as animals. Let’s imagine for a moment that a person has some problems resulted in difficulties with enabling protein synthesis.

Some of you may have heard about retinoblastoma protein. It keeps control over the frequency of cells division especially when it comes to retina in our eyes. Every time the process of cell dividing gets out of control, it may result in various diseases. They may include cancer, mutation and other serious health problems and the same thing is with animals. Their cells are busy with the same process that is to ensure a correct protein synthesis.

Synthesis Found in Plants

We totally depend on plants as well as other organisms on our planet, as plants have always been crucial elements of the environment. They work hard to create a suitable ecosystem for all living organisms providing enough energy. Moreover, they reduce the level of carbon dioxide by means of photosynthesis. The process lets plants turn sunlight and water into glucose and oxygen through a series of different chemical reactions enabled by protein.

The leaves of plants contain a so-called RuBisCo protein that turns carbon dioxide into glucose ( a special type of sugar). Leaves than incorporate it from air and deliver directly to cells. Both humans and animals simply cannot survive without a necessary amount of glucose in their organisms. For this reason, the role of protein synthesis in plants is vital. Imagine for one second, that all flora vanishes from the planet, in this case, we would immediately run out of oxygen and glucose and die off.

What Are the Main Steps of Synthesis?

Synthesis is based on two main stages:

  1. Transcription. The process of copying DNA and turning it into mRNA carrying all necessary information for completing the synthesis. The stage is usually divided into two broader phases containing the formation of pre-messenger RNA as well as the stage of RNA editing. Otherwise, it will not be able to produce necessary molecules. Transcription process may seem a bit similar to the process of DNA replication featuring polymerize enzymes to catalyze building of pre-messenger. However, the processes are different from each other, as DNA replication highlights copying of both strands including gene and sense. Transcription copies only sense strand.
  2. Translation. The first process described above is responsible for mRNA formation, and now we need to deliver it to the cytoplasm out of  nucleus. The messenger itself is not able to enable synthesis, It requires transfer RNA. This is how actually the protein synthesis is directed, while the process itself is called translation.

Valuable Functions

As well as any other process in human’s organism synthesis may play a vital role. It certainly has some crucial functions including wound healing and many other. If it was not for protein, we would be already dead. Moreover, it controls various aspects of cellular activity and life. It takes part or responsible for countless processes and reactions that take place in different parts of our body.

Every time you get wounded by sharp objects, fire and so on, your body needs healing. In other words, some of your body parts call for repair. Cell division is responsible for this process. As we have already mentioned, incorrect cell division may result in the lack of proteins. It can lead to cancer and other serious health problems.

A proper cell division will ensure a safe operation of the blood-vessels and on-time replacement of already dead cells. In this complicated process, every type of protein has its own task. Some of them prepare our body for the process and check if everything is fine before it launches. Others make a DNA copy of cells ensuring the correct amount of DNA for every new cell. If something goes wrong, your body will never be able to heal the wounds.

Summing Up

Some people do not clearly understand what proteins are. They think eating enough eggs and healthy foods will be a good solution to all problems related to the lack of proteins. However, the process is much more complicated than it seems at first sight. Read more about the importance of protein synthesis in research papers and specialized web pages.